Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Investments in infrastructure – transport, irrigation, energy and information and communication technology – are crucial to achieving sustainable development and empowering communities in many countries. It has long been recognized that growth in productivity and incomes, and improvements in health and education outcomes require investment in infrastructure.

Target 9.1

Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure.

Developing high quality infrastructure - both within country and transboundary - is essential for both the movement of people and of goods for trade. These can have import impacts on economic growth and productivity trends. In the charts below you see the numbers of passenger and goods kilometres carried by different transport modes.

Further information on these topics can be found at our entries on International Trade and Tourism.

Target 9.2

Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.

With economic growth, most countries move through a significant economic transition from agriculture to industrialisation. Ensuring this process of industrialisation is inclusive is essential in making such economic transitions sustainable, and closely linked with positive employment outcomes.

The charts below show the share of manufacturing, both with a country's gross domestic product (GDP) and in its share of total employment. Further context of these transitions can be found at our blog posts on Structural Transformation and Are Emerging Economies Deindustrializing Too Quickly?

Target 9.4

By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.

Ensuring that economic growth is achieved in an environmentally sustainable way will require a significant reduction in the resource consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). In the chart below we see the carbon emissions intensity - that is the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of GDP.

More statistics and visualisations on carbon dioxide and greenhouse emissions in our entry here.

Target 9.5

Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.

The charts below provide statistics on the magnitude of research and development (R&D) expenditure, measured as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) and the number of researchers per million people across the world's countries.

Target 9.a

Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries.

The chart below details levels of total official development assistance (ODA) transferred in support of developing infrastructure within low to middle-income countries.

Target 9.b

Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries.

Manufacturing products vary in terms of technological complexity and innovation. The chart below shows the share of a country's manufacturing value added which is derived from medium to high-tech industry outputs. Higher values indicate that a country's industrial sector is more focused on high-tech and innovation products.

Target 9.c

Significantly increase access to information and communications technology.

The world is becoming increasingly connected - largely as a result of major technological innovations. It is essential that these connections are available to all.

In the charts below we see the numbers of mobile phone subscriptions, and internet users across the world. Further data on technological access can be found at our entries on Technology Diffusion & Adoption, and the Internet.