Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Sustainable consumption and production is about promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs and a better quality of life for all. Its implementation helps to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty.

Definitions of, and indicators for sustainable resource consumption is currently limited, as shown in the data available below.

Target 12.2

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

Definitions of sustainable management and use of natural resources are currently poorly defined. The charts below show the UN indicators of material footprint (MF) and Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) per capita, and footprint per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). This material footprint includes that from biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores and non-metal ores.

DMC is a production-side, whereas MF is a consumption-side measure. DMC does not account for supply chain inputs or exports, meaning a country could have a lower DMC value if it outsources a large proportion of its materials. MF corrects for this factor.

Target 12.4

Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement.

There are a number of international multilateral agreements on hazardous waste and other chemicals (including the Montreal Protocol, Basel Convention, Rotterdam Convention and Stockholm Convention). The chart below shows the percentage of countries meeting commitments and obligations within each agreement.